Consequences of the "Secular Trend"

Copyright 2016, James Michael Howard, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A.

It is my hypothesis that the secular trend, the increase in size of children and earlier puberty, is caused by increases in maternal testosterone exposure of fetuses. This translates into increased testosterone in both sexes with time within the population. (If you are interested in more detail, go to and find "secular trend" on the right side, slightly down on the page and is derived from my explanation of human evolution: "Androgens in Human Evolution," Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum 2001; 94: 345-362. If your library does not subscribe to "Rivista ... ," you may find this at: .)

The consequences of the trend may prove to be dire for us. Furthermore, I suggest the United States, and the rest of the world, is exhibiting these consequences at all levels within these populations and it is increasing.

Excess testosterone will (1) reduce impulse control, (2) reduce intelligence, and (3) reduce empathy. Individuals will do what they want, will not think about consequences, and will not care about how they affect others.

They will produce more children than others, to a certain point. High testosterone actually reduces fertility in women. So, these characteristics will decline, somewhat, within our population. For example, at this time in the U.S., pregnancy rates in very young women (young teenagers) has declined but continues in the age group just older. This is heralded as indications that this young group "gets the message" about birth control or self control, while those a little older do not. I submit that this younger group is producing such high levels of testosterone that their fertility is declining.

If interested: “Civilopathy and the Decline of America,” of 1997/98 at: .